Anti-Multiple Myeloma Potential of Secondary Metabolites from Hibiscus sabdariffa—Part 2.

Malacrida, A., Cavalloro, V., Martino, E., Costa, G., Ambrosio, F.A., Alcaro, S., Rigolio, R., Cassetti, A., Miloso, M., Collina, S.

(2021) Molecules, 26, art. no. 6596.

DOI: 10.3390/molecules26216596

ABSTRACT: Multiple Myeloma (MM) is an aggressive tumor causing millions of deaths every year and currently available therapies are often unsuccessful or correlated with severe side effects. In our previous work we demonstrated that the Hibiscus sabdariffahydroalcoholic extract inhibits the growth of the MM cell line and we isolated two metabolites responsible for the activity: Hib-esterand Hib-carbaldehyde. Herein we report their interaction with proteasome, one of the main targets in the fight against MM. The molecular modelling study outlined a good interaction of both compounds with the target and these results prompted us to investigate their potential to inhibit proteasome. Metabolites were then isolated from the calyces and an extract with a high content of Hib-ester and Hib-carbaldehyde was prepared. An anticancer profile was drawn, evaluating apoptosis, autophagy and proteasome inhibition, with the anticancer properties being mainly attributed to the Hib-ester and Hib-carbaldehyde, while the proteasome inhibition of the extract could also be ascribed to the presence of anthocyanins, a class of secondary metabolites already known for their proteasome inhibitory activity.